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Why the interstellar gas is ionized?

I became aware about new-to-me cosmological anomaly. FB really tests by tolerance threshold but it is also extremely useful.

The news is that the sparsely distributed hot gas in the space between galaxies is ionized. This is difficult to understand: as universe cooled below the temperature at which hydrogen atoms became stable, it should neutralized in standard cosmology.

In biosystems there is similar problem. Why biologically important ions are indeed ions at physiological temperatures? Even the understanding of electrolytes is plagued by a similar problem. It sounds like sacrelege to even mention to a fashionable deeply-reductionistic popular physicist talking fluently about Planck scale physics, multiverses, and landscape about the scandalous possibility that electrolytes might involve new physics! The so called cold fusion is however now more or less an empirical fact (see this) and takes place in electrolytes - also living matter is an electrolyte.

TGD explanation is based on the hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n×h0 predicted by adelic physics as kind of IQ of the system.




  1. The energy of radiation with very low frequencies - such as EEG frequencies - can be in the range of ionisation energies of atoms by E=heff×f - typically in UV range. Hence interaction between long and short length scales characterized by different values of heff becomes possible and in TGD magnetic body (MB) in long scales would indeed control bio-matter at short scales in this manner. Cyclotron radiation from magnetic flux tubes of MB carrying dark ions would be used as control tool and Josephson radiation from cell membrane would be utilized to transfer sensory input to MB.



  2. TGD variant of Nottale's hypothesis predicts really large values of heff. One would have heff= hgr= GMm/v0 at the magnetic flux tubes connecting masses M and m and carrying gravitons (v0 <c is a parameter with dimensions of velocity). What is important that at gravitational flux tubes cyclotron frequencies would not depend on m being thus universal. For instance, biophotons with energies in UV and visible range would result from dark photons with large heff= hgr for frequencies even in EEG range and below.




The ordinary photons resulting from dark photons would ionize biologically important atoms and molecules. In the interstellar space the situation would be the same: dark photons transforming to ordinary higher energy photons would ionize the intersellar gas.

This relates closely to another cosmological mystery.


  1. Standard model based cosmology cannot explain the origin of magnetic fields appering in all scales. Magnetic fields require in Maxwell's theory current and in cosmology thermal equilibrium does not allow any currents in long length scales. In TGD however magnetic flux tubes carrying monopole fluxes are possible by the topology of CP2. They would have closed 2-surface as cross section rather than disk. They are stable and do not require current to generate the magnetic field. These flux tubes would be carriers of dark matter generating the dark cyclotron radiation ionizing interstellar gas in the scale of wavelength, which would be astrophysical.



  2. There are also another kind of magnetic flux tubes for which cross section is sphere but the flux vanishes since the sphere is contractible. hese flux tubes are not stable against splitting. There would be no magnetic field in the scale of flux tube. Magnetic field is however non-vanishing and ions in it generate dark cyclotron radiation. These flux tubes would naturally carry gravitons and photons. These flux tubes could could mediate gravitational and electromagnetic interactions: gravitons and photons (also dark) would propagate along them.



  3. This picture leads to a model for the formation of galaxies as tangles of long monopole flux carrying cosmic strings looking like dipole field in the region of galaxy (for TGD based model of quasars see this): the energy of these tangle would transform to ordinary matter as the cosmic strings would gradually thicken - this corresponds to cosmic expansion. The process would be the analog of inflation in TGD. Also stars and even planets could be formed in this manner, and thickeded cosmic strings would be carriers of dark matter in TGD sense. The model explains the flat galactic rotation curves trivially.



  4. Dark ions responsible for the intergalactic ionization could reside at these monopole flux tubes or at the

    flux tubes which vanishing magnetic flux carrying mediating gravitational interactions. Which option is correct? Or can one consider both options?

    I learned some time ago that T= 160 minute period appears in astrophysics in many scales from stars to quasars (see this. Its origin is not known. The observation is hat dark cyclotron photons created by Fe2+ ions in interstellar magnetic field about .2 nT have period of 160 minutes.




    1. In TGD inspired biology the endogenous magnetic field is about .2 Gauss and now the time scale is t=.1 seconds which corresponds to alpha rhythm, the fundametal biorhyth. 160 minutes would correspond to cosmic alpha rhythm! Also cyclotron photons with this frequency could induce ionization of interstellar scales. This would require hgr which is by a factor T/t= 105 higher. The mass M would be now 105 larger than for ordinary alpha frequency for which M is naturally proportional to the mass of Earth: M= kE ME. Solar mass is 3.33×:105 times mE. Could the dark matter in question be associated with the flux tubes connecting Sun to smaller masses m mediating gravitational interaction? The ratio of Planck constants would be

      hgr,S/hgr,E= (kS/kE)× (v0,E/v0,S)× ( MS/ME).

      This would demand

      (kS/kE)× (v0,E/v0,S)=1/3.33≈ 3 .



    2. Note that the 160 minute period was discovered in the dynamics of Sun: no mechanism is not know for an oscillation coherent in so long length scale. Could this mean that the MB of Sun controls dynamics of Sun just as the MB of Earth controls the dynamics of biosphere? Is Sun a conscious, intelligent, entity?





See the article Could 160 minute oscillation affecting Galaxies and the Solar System correspond to cosmic "alpha rhythm"? or the chapter About the Nottale's formula for hgr and the possibility that Planck length lP and CP2 length R are identical.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

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